【News Buddy】34%漱口水常用或會染牙漬

◆ 香港消委會發現部分漱口水長期使用可能會令牙齒染有漬斑以及短暫影響味覺。 資料圖片
◆ 香港消委會發現部分漱口水長期使用可能會令牙齒染有漬斑以及短暫影響味覺。 資料圖片

  【原文】下文摘錄自2022年12月16日香港《文匯報》︰

  不少人除了早晚刷牙,還會使用漱口水,但你又有否想過含問題成分的漱口水隨時愈漱愈多牙漬,甚至短暫影響味覺?香港消委會測試32款香港市面有售的漱口水,發現有11款(約34%)產品內含有「西吡氯銨」或「氯己定」成分,長期使用可能會令牙齒染有漬斑以及短暫影響味覺,部分人要停用兩三天才能恢復味覺。消委會又引用世界衞生組織資料,指酒精濃度高達60%至80%才能有效殺菌,漱口水的酒精濃度遠不足以殺菌,更有10個產品氟化物含量比牙膏低,防蛀牙成效存疑。消委會強調,漱口水並非愈「辣」愈有效,市民不要依賴漱口水,正確刷牙及使用牙線的護齒成效更佳。

  消委會在早前公布的最新一期《選擇》月刊中指出,該會今年10月在市面搜購32款漱口水,發現所有樣本的標籤資料都不理想,包括未清楚指示每日使用分量、次數、適用年齡等,其中逾三成樣本(即10款)只有日文,甚或未列出漱口水的成分。消委會指出,漱口水部分有效成分存有副作用,以及不適合部分人士使用,生產商有責任詳細披露,方便消費者挑選。

  今次評測發現,有10款產品加入「西吡氯銨」(Cetylpyridinium chloride,CPC),一款含有「氯己定」(Chlorhexidine)。這兩種成分均有助減少口腔內的細菌,但長期使用均可能會令牙齒染有漬斑、影響外觀,甚至短暫影響味覺,部分人需停用兩三天才能回復味覺。

  同時,有1款產品含有「聚維酮碘」。消委會指,該成分常見於消毒皮膚的消毒劑,含有該成分有助減少口腔及喉嚨受病毒和細菌感染的風險。不過,由於「聚維酮碘」在產生作用的過程中,會釋出游離碘元素,不建議懷孕中的婦女或患有甲狀腺疾病的人士使用。同時,「聚維酮碘」有可能令假牙和牙箍變色,建議漱口前先把假牙和牙箍除下。

  消委會在這次評測中發現近半樣本含有酒精。消委會解釋,部分漱口水成分較難溶於水中,生產商會加入酒精作為輔助性溶劑,幫助混合配方中的不同成分,令其口感變得較「順滑」。雖然酒精亦是常用的消毒劑,但根據世界衞生組織的指引,酒精濃度需要達60%至80%才能夠有效殺死細菌和病毒,然而漱口水中的酒精含量一般都不會達到此濃度,故使用含有酒精成分的漱口水並不一定有更好的殺菌效能。

  此外,10個樣本標示含有有助防止蛀牙的氟化物,但含量遠比一般牙膏低。消委會宣傳及社區關係小組主席蕭景威指:「附在牙齒表面的牙菌膜,只能以牙刷及牙線清除,而漱口水並不能徹底有效地滲透牙菌膜之中,所以漱口水只可作為口腔護理的輔助產品,需配合良好的清潔習慣,才能達到理想效果。」

  不少消費者有漱口水愈辣愈有效的迷思,消委會表示,漱口水的刺激感與殺菌效能並無直接關係。至於滅口臭的功能,是部分漱口水加入鋅鹽掩蓋口臭,卻使用家忽略口臭的真正原因。此外,一些聲稱有美白牙齒功能的漱口水,添加少於2%的氧化氫,濃度遠低於牙醫美白療程,成效也存疑。消委會強調漱口不能取代日常刷牙,又呼籲市民切勿讓6歲以下兒童使用漱口水。

  Over 34% of the mouthwash products might stain the teeth

  【譯文】Many people will use mouthwash in addition to brushing their teeth in the morning and evening, but have you ever thought that mouthwash with problematic ingredients may cause more and more stains and even temporarily affect your sense of taste? The Consumer Council of Hong Kong tested 32 types of mouthwash available in Hong Kong and found that 11 products (about 34%) contained "cetylpyridinium chloride" or "chlorhexidine", which may cause stains on the teeth and temporarily affect the sense of taste with long-term. Some people have to stop using them for two or three days to regain their sense of taste. The Consumer Council also cited information from the World Health Organization that the alcohol concentration should be as high as 60% to 80% to kill bacteria effectively. The alcohol concentration of mouthwash is far from enough to kill the bacteria. There are ten products with lower fluoride content than toothpaste, so the effectiveness of tooth decay prevention is questionable. The Consumer Council stresses that mouthwash is not the more "spicy", the more effective, the public should not rely on mouthwash; proper brushing and flossing are more effective.

  The Consumer Council pointed out in the latest issue of its monthly magazine "CHOICE" that it searched for 32 types of mouthwash in the market in October this year and found that the labelling information of all the samples was unsatisfactory, including the lack of clear instructions on the amount and frequency of daily use and the age of application, etc. More than 30% of the samples (i.e. ten models) were only in Japanese or did not list the mouthwash ingredients. The Consumer Council pointed out that some of the active ingredients of mouthwash have side effects, as well as not suitable for some people to use, and manufacturers have the responsibility to disclose in detail to facilitate consumer selection.

  Ten products were found to contain "Cetylpyridinium chloride" (CPC), and one had "Chlorhexidine". Both ingredients help reduce bacteria in the mouth. Still, long-term use may stain teeth, affect the appearance and even temporarily jeopardise the sense of taste, and some people need to stop using the product for two or three days to regain the sense of taste.

  At the same time, one product contains "povidone-iodine". The Consumer Council said that this ingredient is commonly used in disinfectants for disinfecting the skin. This ingredient can help reduce the risk of viral and bacterial infections of the mouth and throat. However, since povidone iodine releases free iodine in the process of action, it is not recommended for use by pregnant women or people with thyroid disorders. Also, povidone-iodine may discolour dentures and braces, so it is recommended that dentures and braces be removed before rinsing.

  The Consumer Council found that nearly half of the samples contained alcohol in this evaluation. The Consumer Council explained that some mouthwash ingredients are difficult to dissolve in water, so manufacturers will add alcohol as an auxiliary solvent to help mix the different ingredients in the formula to make it taste "smoother". Although alcohol is also a commonly used disinfectant, according to the World Health Organization guidelines, the concentration of alcohol needs to reach 60% to 80% to kill bacteria and viruses effectively. Still, the alcohol content in mouthwash generally does not reach this concentration, so the use of mouthwash containing alcohol does not necessarily have a better bactericidal effect.

  In addition, ten samples were labelled as containing fluoride, which helps prevent tooth decay, but the content was much lower than that of ordinary toothpaste. The chairman of the Consumer Council's Publicity and Community Relations Group, Mr Siu King-wai, pointed out, "The plaque attached to the surface of the teeth can only be removed by toothbrush and dental floss, and mouthwash cannot thoroughly and effectively penetrate the plaque, so mouthwash can only be used as an auxiliary product for oral care, and needs to be combined with good cleaning habits to achieve the desired effect."

  Many consumers have the myth that the spicier the mouthwash, the more effective. The Consumer Council said that the irritation of mouthwash is not directly related to bactericidal effectiveness. As for eliminating bad breath, some mouthwashes add zinc salt to cover bad breath, but users ignore the real cause of bad breath. In addition, some mouthwash claim to have the function of whitening teeth, adding less than 2% of hydrogen oxide, the concentration is much lower than the dentist whitening treatment, and the effectiveness is also doubtful. The Consumer Council stressed that mouthwash could not replace daily brushing and urged the public not to let children under six years old use mouthwash.◆ 琬琰